Idebenone - A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in age-related cognitive disorders.


Gillis JC, Benefield P, McTavish D.

Adis International Limited, 
Auckland, New Zealand.
Drugs Aging 1994 Aug;5(2):133-52

ABSTRACT

Idebenone is a benzoquinone compound which has been investigated in elderly patients with dementia.  Its precise mechanism(s) of action remains unknown, but in vitro and in vivo studies suggest the drug may diminish nerve cell damage due to ischaemia, correct neurotransmitter defects and/or cerebral metabolism and facilitate memory and learning. In the small number of studies available for evaluation, idebenone was generally superior to placebo and comparable with bifemelane, oxiracetam and nebracetam on the basis of a number of objective and subjective tests and rating scales in patients with mild to moderate cognitive decline. Clinical trial results indicate that patients with mild dementia seem more likely to respond than those with greater functional decline. The degree of benefit conferred by idebenone is often difficult to determine, but in those who respond, improvement is generally mild to moderate. Therapy with idebenone appears well tolerated for up to 2 years, and no changes in vital signs or laboratory values have been seen in clinical trials. In view of the lack of a proven agent to limit or halt the progression of dementia in the elderly, idebenone may warrant consideration in patients with mild cognitive dysfunction on the basis of preliminary evidence of predominantly mild improvement of functional status in some patients and good tolerability. However, further well designed studies, including comparisons with newer and commonly used agents, such as tacrine, are required to better define the role of idebenone in this complex area of treatment. Idebenone - 150 mg - 30 caps - SALE - Jan 2015 Exp

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Idebenone - the ultimate anti-aging drug.  (article)
  
Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  efficacy of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  Nerve Growth Factor synthesis stimulators in Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  in the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer type
Idebenone  cognitive enhancement therapy for Alzheimer's disease

MELAS
Idebenone  improves cerebral mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in MELAS
Idebenone  in young patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  therapy in Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  and Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  successful therapy with idebenone in Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
 .
Cardiomyopathy
Idebenone  improvement in mitochondrial cardiomyopathy following treatment with idebenone

Idebenone   effect of idebenone on cardiomyopathy in Friedreich's ataxia
 .

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)
Idebenone  does it shorten the time to visual recovery in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy?
Idebenone  improvement in a patient with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)

Misc.
Idebenone  use in age-related cognitive disorders

Idebenone  protects hippocampal neurons against beta amyloid neurotoxicity

Idebenone 
functions as a potent protective hepatocyte antioxidant

Idebenone 
neuroprotective effects of idebenone can be attributed to its antioxidant ability

Idebenone 
inhibition of brain mitochondrial swelling

Idebenone 
suppression of cold ischemia/reperfusion injury of liver endothelium

Idebenone 
ability to eliminate a nitroxide radical in the rat

Idebenone  interaction with respiratory complexes of heart mitochondria

Idebenone  effect on serotonin release and seroton receptors in rats

Idebenone  protects hepatic microsomes against damage in organ preservation solutions

Idebenone 
protects against toxicity induced by low density lipoprotein

Idebenone  protects against disorders due to cerebral hypoxia or ischemia

Idebenone  protects against toxicity induced by low density lipoprotein

Idebenone  attenuates neuronal degeneration induced by excitotoxins

Idebenone  augments long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices in the guinea pig

Idebenone
  effects on electroencephalograms of patients with cerebrovascular disorders
   
Idebenone  effects on respiratory activities of brain mitochondria

Idebenone 
effects on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of stroke-prone, hypertensive rats

Idebenone  brain distribution and its effect on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats

Idebenone  effects on acetylcholine levels in the brains of rats with cerebral ischemia

Idebenone  protective effect of idebenone against hypoxia in mice

Idebenone  improves learning and memory impairment induced in rats

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on neurological deficits in stroke-prone rats

Idebenone
  effects on memory induced impairment in rats

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on cerebral blood flow in rats with cerebral ischemia

Idebenone 
inhibition of brain mitochondrial swelling by idebenone

Idebenone 
inhibition of platelet aggregation by idebenone

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on monoamine metabolites of patients with dementia

Idebenone 
effects of idebenone on metabolism of monoamines and cyclic AMP formation

Idebenone
  effects on impairment of radial maze learning in cerebral embolized rats

Idebenone  effect of idebenone on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate

Idebenone  effects on muricidal behavior in rats with raphe lesions  

Idebenone  inhibitory effect of idebenone on vascular lesions in hypertensive rats

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