Orally active NGF synthesis stimulators: potential therapeutic agents in Alzheimer's disease.

Yamada K, Nitta A, Hasegawa T, Fuji K, Hiramatsu M,
 Kameyama T, Furukawa Y, Hayashi K, Nabeshima T.

Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan.
Behav Brain Res 1997 Feb;83(1-2):117-22

Abstract

The degeneration of cholinergic neurons may be responsible for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in the survival and maintenance of cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system, this factor may have some beneficial effects on the cognitive impairment observed in patients with AD.  However, since NGF does not cross the blood-brain barrier and is easily metabolized when administered peripherally, it can only be used when directly injected into the brain.  In this review, we show that repeated oral administration of the NGF synthesis stimulators, idebenone and propentofylline, partially restored the age-associated decrease of NGF in the frontal and parietal cortices. Furthermore, this treatment attenuated the impairment of performance in the water maze, passive avoidance, and habituation tasks in rats with bilateral forebrain lesions, and in rats which had received continuous infusion of anti-NGF antibody into the septum. The behavioral improvement induced by idebenone and propentofylline was accompanied by recovery of both the reduced activity of choline acetyltransferase and the changes in [3H]QNB binding. These results suggest that the use of NGF synthesis stimulators may provide a novel therapeutic approach to cholinergic dysfunction.

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Idebenone - the ultimate anti-aging drug.  (article)
  
Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  versus Tacrine in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease
Idebenone  in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  efficacy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  Nerve Growth Factor synthesis stimulators in Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  in the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer type
Idebenone  cognitive enhancement therapy for Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  protection from beta amyloid-induced oxidative stress
Idebenone  protection from
beta amyloid-induced memory deficits and neurotoxicity
Idebenone  a study of 2 doses of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  a two year study of idebenone treatment for Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  stimulates NGF synthesis in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  animal model study of Nerve Growth Factor and Alzheimer's disease

MELAS
Idebenone  improves cerebral mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in MELAS
Idebenone  in young patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  therapy in Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  and Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  successful therapy with idebenone in Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
 .
Cardiomyopathy
Idebenone  improvement in mitochondrial cardiomyopathy following treatment with idebenone

Idebenone   effect of idebenone on cardiomyopathy in Friedreich's ataxia
 .

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)
Idebenone  does it shorten the time to visual recovery in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy?
Idebenone  improvement in a patient with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)

Misc.
Idebenone  use in age-related cognitive disorders

Idebenone  protects hippocampal neurons against beta amyloid neurotoxicity

Idebenone 
functions as a potent protective hepatocyte antioxidant

Idebenone 
neuroprotective effects of idebenone can be attributed to its antioxidant ability

Idebenone 
inhibition of brain mitochondrial swelling

Idebenone 
suppression of cold ischemia/reperfusion injury of liver endothelium

Idebenone 
ability to eliminate a nitroxide radical in the rat

Idebenone  interaction with respiratory complexes of heart mitochondria

Idebenone  effect on serotonin release and seroton receptors in rats

Idebenone  protects hepatic microsomes against damage in organ preservation solutions

Idebenone 
protects against toxicity induced by low density lipoprotein

Idebenone  protects against disorders due to cerebral hypoxia or ischemia

Idebenone  protects against toxicity induced by low density lipoprotein

Idebenone  attenuates neuronal degeneration induced by excitotoxins

Idebenone  augments long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices in the guinea pig

Idebenone
effects on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of stroke-prone, hypertensive rats

Idebenone  brain distribution and its effect on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats

Idebenone  effects on acetylcholine levels in the brains of rats with cerebral ischemia

Idebenone  protective effect of idebenone against hypoxia in mice

Idebenone  improves learning and memory impairment induced in rats

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on neurological deficits in stroke-prone rats

Idebenone
  effects on memory induced impairment in rats

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on cerebral blood flow in rats with cerebral ischemia

Idebenone 
inhibition of brain mitochondrial swelling by idebenone

Idebenone 
inhibition of platelet aggregation by idebenone

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on monoamine metabolites of patients with dementia

Idebenone 
effects of idebenone on metabolism of monoamines and cyclic AMP formation

Idebenone
  effects on impairment of radial maze learning in cerebral embolized rats

Idebenone  effect of idebenone on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate

Idebenone  effects on muricidal behavior in rats with raphe lesions

Idebenone  inhibitory effect of idebenone on vascular lesions in hypertensive rats

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