Effects of idebenone on metabolism of monoamines and cyclic AMP formation in rats.

Nagai Y, Narumi S, Kakihana M, Yamazaki N, Nagaoka A, Nagawa Y.

Central Research Division, 
Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd. Osaka, Japan.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1989 May;8(3):273-89

ABSTRACT

Idebenone, 6-(10-hydroxydecyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, at a dose of 100 mg/kg (i.p.) markedly increased the level of 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in several brain regions without affecting monoamine contents in normal rats. In rats with cerebral ischemia, idebenone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) normalized the decreased levels of 5-HIAA in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon and brain stem. A 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) biosynthesis inhibitor, DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the levels of 5-HT to one-third of the control level 24 h after administration. Idebenone (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, i.p.), administered 24 h after the treatment with PCPA, accelerated the PCPA-induced 5-HT decreased in the hippocampus, diencephalon and brain stem in a dose-dependent manner. Idebenone (100 mg/kg, i.p.) stimulated the release of 5-HT in the dorsal hippocampus as determined by in vivo differential pulse voltammetry. Idebenone, like p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), stimulated 5-HT release from slices of hippocampus and diencephalon, and the formation of cyclic AMP in a concentration-dependent manner in rat diencephalon slice. This stimulation was almost completely blocked by methysergide, a 5-HT receptor blocker. Idebenone slightly and PCA markedly inhibited 5-HT uptake into hippocampus slices. The mechanism of the 5-HT releasing actions of idebenone in the hippocampal slices may be mediated through endogenous calcium. These results suggest that idebenone has an enhancing effect on the turnover of 5-HT in the hippocampus, diencephalon, and brain stem of rats.

Idebenone - the ultimate anti-aging drug.  (article)
  
Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  efficacy of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  Nerve Growth Factor synthesis stimulators in Alzheimer's disease
Idebenone  in the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer type
Idebenone  cognitive enhancement therapy for Alzheimer's disease

Friedreich's ataxia.
Idebenone  and reduced cardiac hypertrophy in Friedreich's ataxia.
Ideb
enone  causes improvement in mitochondrial cardiomyopathy
Idebenone  cerebellar improvement in Friedreich's ataxia after 3 months
Idebenone   effect of idebenone on cardiomyopathy in Friedreich's ataxia
Idebenone  Friedreich's ataxia and frataxin
Idebenone   Frataxin: Its role in iron metabolism and Friedreich's Ataxia
Idebenone   mitochondrial dysfunction in Friedreich's ataxia
Idebenone   helps heart function in Friedreich's ataxia

MELAS
Idebenone  improves cerebral mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in MELAS
Idebenone  in young patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  therapy in Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  and Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
Idebenone  successful therapy with idebenone in Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS)
 .
Cardiomyopathy
Idebenone  improvement in mitochondrial cardiomyopathy following treatment with idebenone

Idebenone   effect of idebenone on cardiomyopathy in Friedreich's ataxia
 .

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)
Idebenone  does it shorten the time to visual recovery in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy?
Idebenone  improvement in a patient with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)

Misc.
Idebenone  use in age-related cognitive disorders

Idebenone  protects hippocampal neurons against beta amyloid neurotoxicity

Idebenone 
functions as a potent protective hepatocyte antioxidant

Idebenone 
neuroprotective effects of idebenone can be attributed to its antioxidant ability

Idebenone 
inhibition of brain mitochondrial swelling

Idebenone 
suppression of cold ischemia/reperfusion injury of liver endothelium

Idebenone 
ability to eliminate a nitroxide radical in the rat

Idebenone  interaction with respiratory complexes of heart mitochondria

Idebenone  effect on serotonin release and seroton receptors in rats

Idebenone  protects hepatic microsomes against damage in organ preservation solutions

Idebenone 
protects against toxicity induced by low density lipoprotein

Idebenone  protects against disorders due to cerebral hypoxia or ischemia

Idebenone  protects against toxicity induced by low density lipoprotein

Idebenone  attenuates neuronal degeneration induced by excitotoxins

Idebenone  augments long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices in the guinea pig

Idebenone
effects on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of stroke-prone, hypertensive rats

Idebenone  brain distribution and its effect on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats

Idebenone  effects on acetylcholine levels in the brains of rats with cerebral ischemia

Idebenone  protective effect of idebenone against hypoxia in mice

Idebenone  improves learning and memory impairment induced in rats

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on neurological deficits in stroke-prone rats

Idebenone
  effects on memory induced impairment in rats

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on cerebral blood flow in rats with cerebral ischemia

Idebenone 
inhibition of brain mitochondrial swelling by idebenone

Idebenone 
inhibition of platelet aggregation by idebenone

Idebenone  effects of idebenone on monoamine metabolites of patients with dementia

Idebenone 
effects of idebenone on metabolism of monoamines and cyclic AMP formation

Idebenone
  effects on impairment of radial maze learning in cerebral embolized rats

Idebenone  effect of idebenone on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate

Idebenone  effects on muricidal behavior in rats with raphe lesions

Idebenone  inhibitory effect of idebenone on vascular lesions in hypertensive rats

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